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Mesothelioma

 

Mesothelioma is a tumour made of cells derived from the mesothelium, which is the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm that lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous-celled layer of the epithelium that covers the surface of all true serous membranes.

Asbestosis is a lund disease which results from the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
The information on this page is sourced from the National Cancer Institute (US) and the Merck Manual of Medical Information (Second Edition).

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Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer in which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the mesothelium, a protective sac that covers most of the body's internal organs. Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles.

  1. What is the mesothelium?

    The mesothelium is a membrane that covers and protects most of the internal organs of the body. It is composed of two layers of cells: One layer immediately surrounds the organ; the other forms a sac around it. The mesothelium produces a lubricating fluid that is released between these layers, allowing moving organs (such as the beating heart and the expanding and contracting lungs) to glide easily against adjacent structures.

    The mesothelium has different names, depending on its location in the body. The peritoneum is the mesothelial tissue that covers most of the organs in the abdominal cavity. The pleura is the membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the wall of the chest cavity. The pericardium covers and protects the heart. The mesothelial tissue surrounding the male internal reproductive organs is called the tunica vaginalis testis. The tunica serosa uteri covers the internal reproductive organs in women.

  2. What is mesothelioma?

    Mesothelioma (cancer of the mesothelium) is a disease in which cells of the mesothelium become abnormal and divide without control or order. They can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs. Cancer cells can also metastasize (spread) from their original site to other parts of the body. Most cases of mesothelioma begin in the pleura or peritoneum.

  3. How common is mesothelioma?

    Although reported incidence rates have increased in the past 20 years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer. About 2,000 new cases of mesothelioma are diagnosed in the United States each year. Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age.

  4. What are the risk factors for mesothelioma?

    Working with asbestos is the major risk factor for mesothelioma. A history of asbestos exposure at work is reported in about 70 percent to 80 percent of all cases. However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any known exposure to asbestos.

    Asbestos is the name of a group of minerals that occur naturally as masses of strong, flexible fibers that can be separated into thin threads and woven. Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, roof shingles, flooring products, textiles, and insulation. If tiny asbestos particles float in the air, especially during the manufacturing process, they may be inhaled or swallowed, and can cause serious health problems. In addition to mesothelioma, exposure to asbestos increases the risk of lung cancer, asbestosis (a noncancerous, chronic lung ailment), and other cancers, such as those of the larynx and kidney.

    Smoking does not appear to increase the risk of mesothelioma. However, the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure significantly increases a person's risk of developing cancer of the air passageways in the lung.

  5. Who is at increased risk for developing mesothelioma?

    Asbestos has been mined and used commercially since the late 1800s. Its use greatly increased during World War II. Since the early 1940s, millions of American workers have been exposed to asbestos dust. Initially, the risks associated with asbestos exposure were not known. However, an increased risk of developing mesothelioma was later found among shipyard workers, people who work in asbestos mines and mills, producers of asbestos products, workers in the heating and construction industries, and other tradespeople. Today, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets limits for acceptable levels of asbestos exposure in the workplace. People who work with asbestos wear personal protective equipment to lower their risk of exposure.

    The risk of asbestos-related disease increases with heavier exposure to asbestos and longer exposure time. However, some individuals with only brief exposures have developed mesothelioma. On the other hand, not all workers who are heavily exposed develop asbestos-related diseases.

    There is some evidence that family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos-related diseases. This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibers, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace.

  6. What are the symptoms of mesothelioma?

    Symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear until 30 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath and pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleura are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include weight loss and abdominal pain and swelling due to a buildup of fluid in the abdomen. Other symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma may include bowel obstruction, blood clotting abnormalities, anemia, and fever. If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face.

    These symptoms may be caused by mesothelioma or by other, less serious conditions. It is important to see a doctor about any of these symptoms. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis.

  7. How is mesothelioma diagnosed?

    Diagnosing mesothelioma is often difficult, because the symptoms are similar to those of a number of other conditions. Diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history, including any history of asbestos exposure. A complete physical examination may be performed, including x-rays of the chest or abdomen and lung function tests. A CT (or CAT) scan or an MRI may also be useful. A CT scan is a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. In an MRI, a powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.

    A biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of mesothelioma. In a biopsy, a surgeon or a medical oncologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating cancer) removes a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope by a pathologist. A biopsy may be done in different ways, depending on where the abnormal area is located. If the cancer is in the chest, the doctor may perform a thoracoscopy. In this procedure, the doctor makes a small cut through the chest wall and puts a thin, lighted tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. Thoracoscopy allows the doctor to look inside the chest and obtain tissue samples. If the cancer is in the abdomen, the doctor may perform a peritoneoscopy. To obtain tissue for examination, the doctor makes a small opening in the abdomen and inserts a special instrument called a peritoneoscope into the abdominal cavity. If these procedures do not yield enough tissue, more extensive diagnostic surgery may be necessary.

    If the diagnosis is mesothelioma, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or extent) of the disease. Staging involves more tests in a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to which parts of the body. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the doctor plan treatment.

    Mesothelioma is described as localized if the cancer is found only on the membrane surface where it originated. It is classified as advanced if it has spread beyond the original membrane surface to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, chest wall, or abdominal organs.

  8. How is mesothelioma treated?

    Treatment for mesothelioma depends on the location of the cancer, the stage of the disease, and the patient's age and general health. Standard treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Sometimes, these treatments are combined.

    • Surgery is a common treatment for mesothelioma. The doctor may remove part of the lining of the chest or abdomen and some of the tissue around it. For cancer of the pleura (pleural mesothelioma), a lung may be removed in an operation called a pneumonectomy. Sometimes part of the diaphragm, the muscle below the lungs that helps with breathing, is also removed.

    • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy affects the cancer cells only in the treated area. The radiation may come from a machine (external radiation) or from putting materials that produce radiation through thin plastic tubes into the area where the cancer cells are found (internal radiation therapy).

    • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. Most drugs used to treat mesothelioma are given by injection into a vein (intravenous, or IV). Doctors are also studying the effectiveness of putting chemotherapy directly into the chest or abdomen (intracavitary chemotherapy).

    To relieve symptoms and control pain, the doctor may use a needle or a thin tube to drain fluid that has built up in the chest or abdomen. The procedure for removing fluid from the chest is called thoracentesis. Removal of fluid from the abdomen is called paracentesis. Drugs may be given through a tube in the chest to prevent more fluid from accumulating. Radiation therapy and surgery may also be helpful in relieving symptoms.

  9. Are new treatments for mesothelioma being studied?

    Yes. Because mesothelioma is very hard to control, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is sponsoring clinical trials (research studies with people) that are designed to find new treatments and better ways to use current treatments. Before any new treatment can be recommended for general use, doctors conduct clinical trials to find out whether the treatment is safe for patients and effective against the disease. Participation in clinical trials is an important treatment option for many patients with mesothelioma.

    People interested in taking part in a clinical trial should talk with their doctor. Information about clinical trials is available from the Cancer Information Service (CIS) (see below) at: 1-800-4-CANCER. Information specialists at the CIS use PDQ®, NCI's cancer information database, to identify and provide detailed information about specific ongoing clinical trials. Patients also have the option of searching for clinical trials on their own. The clinical trials page on the NCI's http://www.cancer.gov Web site, located at http://www.cancer.gov/clinical_trials on the Internet, provides general information about clinical trials and links to PDQ.

    People considering clinical trials may be interested in the NCI booklet Taking Part in Clinical Trials: What Cancer Patients Need To Know. This booklet describes how research studies are carried out and explains their possible benefits and risks. The booklet is available by calling the CIS, or from the NCI Publications Locator Web site at http://www.cancer.gov/publications on the Internet.

    Information source: National Cancer Institute

The Following Information on Mesothelioma is from the Merck Manual of Medical Information - Sencond Edition

You can buy the book at: http://www.merckbooks.com/mmanual_home2/index.html

Asbestosis

Asbestosis is widespread scarring of lung tissue caused by breathing asbestos dust.

Asbestos is composed of fibrous mineral silicates of different chemical compositions. When inhaled, asbestos fibers settle deep in the lungs, causing scars. Asbestos inhalation also can cause the two layers of membrane covering the lungs (the pleura) to thicken; these thickenings are called pleural plaques. These plaques do not become cancerous.

Inhaling asbestos fibers can occasionally cause fluid to accumulate in the space between the two pleural layers of the lungs (pleural space); this is called a noncancerous (benign) asbestos effusion.

Asbestos also causes cancer in the pleura, called mesothelioma, or in the membranes of the abdomen, called peritoneal mesothelioma. In the United States, asbestos is the only known cause of cancerous (malignant) mesothelioma. Smoking is not a cause of cancerous mesothelioma. Mesotheliomas most commonly appear after exposure to crocidolite, one of four types of asbestos. Amosite, another type, also causes mesotheliomas. Chrysotile probably causes fewer cases of mesotheliomas than other types, but chrysotile is often contaminated with tremolite, which does. Mesotheliomas usually develop 30 to 40 years after exposure and can occur after low exposure.

Asbestos can also cause lung cancer. Lung cancer from asbestos is related in part to the level of exposure to asbestos fibers; however, among people with asbestosis, lung cancer occurs most commonly in those who also smoke cigarettes, particularly those who smoke more than a pack a day (see Cancer of the Lungs: Lung Cancer).

Although the general public has become alarmed about the risks of asbestos, most nonoccupationally exposed people are at extremely low risk of developing asbestos-related lung disease. The asbestos must be broken into tiny pieces to be inhaled into the lungs. Workers who demolish buildings that have insulation containing asbestos are at increased risk. People who regularly work with asbestos are at greatest risk of developing lung disease. The more a person is exposed to asbestos fibers, the greater the risk of developing an asbestos-related disease.

Symptoms

Symptoms of asbestosis appear gradually only after large areas of the lung become scarred. The scarring causes the lungs to lose their elasticity. The first symptoms are a mild shortness of breath and a decreased ability to exercise. Smokers who have chronic bronchitis along with asbestosis may cough and wheeze. Gradually, breathing becomes more and more difficult. In about 15% of people with asbestosis, severe shortness of breath and respiratory failure develop.

A person with noncancerous asbestos effusion may have difficulty in breathing because of fluid accumulation. Pleural plaques cause only a mild breathing difficulty that results from stiffness of the chest wall. Persistent pain in the chest and shortness of breath are the most common symptoms caused by mesothelioma.

Diagnosis

Usually, the person with asbestosis has abnormal lung function, and a doctor listening with a stethoscope placed over the lungs can hear abnormal sounds called crackles. In a person who has a history of exposure to asbestos, a doctor sometimes can diagnose asbestosis with a chest x-ray or a chest computed tomography (CT) that shows characteristic changes. Pleural plaques that develop in many people with exposure to asbestos often contain calcium, which makes them easy to see on chest x-rays and CT. A lung biopsy is rarely needed to make the diagnosis.

If a tumor of the pleura is found on x-ray, a doctor must perform a biopsy (remove a small piece of pleura and examine it under a microscope) to determine if it is cancerous. Fluid around the lungs may be removed with a needle and analyzed for cancer cells (a procedure called thoracentesis).

However, thoracentesis is not usually as accurate as performing a pleural biopsy. If a chest x-ray reveals something that looks like a tumor, there is a good possibility that the area is a primary lung cancer and should be evaluated fully.

Prevention and Treatment

Diseases caused by asbestos inhalation can be prevented by minimizing asbestos dust and fibers in the workplace. Because industries that use asbestos have improved dust control, fewer people develop asbestosis today, but mesotheliomas are still occurring in people who were exposed as many as 40 years ago. Asbestos in the home should be removed by workers trained in safe removal techniques. Smokers who have been in contact with asbestos can reduce their risk of lung cancer by giving up smoking and should probably have a chest x-ray annually.

Most treatments for asbestosis ease symptoms—for example, oxygen therapy relieves shortness of breath. Draining fluid from around the lungs using a procedure called thoracentesis also may make breathing easier. Occasionally, lung transplantation has been successful in treating asbestosis.

Mesotheliomas are invariably fatal; most people with mesotheliomas die within 1 to 4 years of diagnosis. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy do not work well, and surgical removal of the tumor does not cure the cancer. Other treatment is focused on controlling pain and shortness of breath, in an effort to preserve as much quality-of-life as possible.



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